Corruption and Indonesia
Indonesia is ranked 90 out of 176 in Transparency International’s (TI) 2016 corruption index. The public perception of corruption is high - ranked as 37 on TI’s scale, where100 is very clean and 0 is highly corrupt. When the public perceives corruption as highly prevalent and it has been “normalized” within the prevailing culture, individuals typically feel powerless to change the situation. The presence of persistent systemic corruption in societies tends to be further embedded through the collective belief that “ -- efforts to resist, abstain from, or fight corruption will be wasted. This is because many people assume the vast majority of others will engage in corruption”.
Saya Perempuan Anti-Korupsi(SPAK) – ‘I am a Woman against Corruption"
SPAK was launched through a partnership between the Australia Indonesia Partnership for Justice (AIPJ) with Indonesia’s Corruption Eradication Commission (Komisi Pemberantasan Korupsi, KPK) on 21st April 2014.
During the three years since SPAK was launched it has grown into a national movement. In December 2016 it has 1025 SPAK Agents active in each of the 34 provinces in Indonesia. These are women who have completed the initial 3 day Training of Trainers (ToT) and the follow up Post ToT that takes place 3 months after the initial training.
The principle of Multi-Level-Marketing has been successfully used to expand the movement’s membership. This has been achieved by targeting women from a range of employment and professional backgrounds, and who are active in voluntary organisations and networks, including those associated with other KPK activities. During 2015 / 2016 certain groups of women were specifically targeted including women from legal background, law enforcement (police officers), entrepreneurs, students, and members of certain professional groups- pharmacy, pre-school teachers and business women.
Certain key characteristics distinguish SPAK from other programs and organisations tackling corruption in Indonesia. The focus on prevention rather than retribution; targeting women as agents of change; and the innovative participatory and inclusive pedagogy used in training and for wider commun's ication and socialising of concepts.
The Theory of Change (ToC) of SPAK is simple. It focuses on three area of change:
√ Individual change in knowledge – understand what constitutes the different forms of corruption
√ Individual change in behaviour - be corrupt free in ones own life
√ Wider change – to stop corruption in families, communities and systemically
Sarah was contracted to complete the evaluation of SPAK between November 2016 and March 2017. The evaluation explored the extent to which the targets set have been achieved, and ways in which SPAK as a women’s social movement has contributed to improved knowledge and changes in behaviour that support prevention of corruption at an individual, organisational and system level in Indonesia. The evaluation findings and recommendations are expected to assist in setting priorities and strategies for the next phase of SPAK, particularly in relation to its continued growth; new areas of activity; and options for ensuring longer term sustainability of the SPAK movement.
A formative approach was applied in the evaluation to help improve understanding about the factors internal to SPAK and external in the operating context that are influencing the effectiveness of implementation strategies, and to provide information that can be applied to enhance aspects of design and performance in the next phase. The formative enquirywas complemented by summative investigation that captured the outcomes and impact of SPAK’s activities and the processes and approaches used that have contributed focusing on the period since the last evaluation.
Power and Empowerment
To guide data collection and analysis for the first three area of enquiry the Alternative Forms of Power framework was used. This considers power as a positive empowering force that is described in three dimensions:
Power within – self-worth, dignity
Power to – individual ability to act
Power with – collective action, working together
Data was collected by:
Survey - through semi structured questionnaire distributed to all SPAK agents
Field visits – to 5 provinces where focus group discussions (FGDs) and interviews with SPAK gents, semai agents and other participants and stakeholders took place
Interviews – with KPK leadership, ministry and government officials, and other CSO / NGOs working on anticorruption and corruption prevention
Document review – of reflections of SPAK agents following Post ToT completed in the last 12 months, media and Facebook postings.
The evaluation findings and recommendation will be shared during May 2017.